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  1. Republic of the Philippines
    Metro Manila
    Fourteenth Congress
    Third Regular Session

    Begun and held in Metro Manila, on Monday, the twenty-seventh day of July, two thousand nine.

    REPUBLIC ACT No. 10023


    Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the Philippines in Congress assembled:
    Section 1. Qualifications. – Any Filipino citizen who is an actual occupant of a residential land may apply for a Free Patent Title under this Act: Provided; That in highly urbanized cities, the land should not exceed two hundred (200) square meters; in other cities, it should not exceed five hundred (500) square meters; in first class and second class municipalities, it should not exceed seven hundred fifty (750) square meters; and in all other municipalities, it should not exceed one thousand (1,000) square meters; Provided, further, That the land applied for is not needed for public service and/or public use.

    Section 2. Coverage. – This Act shall cover all lands that are zoned as residential areas, including townsites as defined under the Public Land Act; Provided, That none of the provisions of Presidential Decree No. 705 shall be violated.
    Zoned residential areas located inside a delisted military reservation or abandoned military camp, and those of local government units (LGUs) or townsites which preceded Republic Act No. 7586 or the National Integrated Protected Areas System (NIPAS) law, shall also be covered by this Act.

    Section 3. Application. – The application on the land applied for shall be supported by a map based on an actual survey conducted by a licensed geodetic engineer and approved by the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) and a technical description of the land applied for together with supporting affidavit of two (2) disinterested persons who are residing in the barangay of the city or municipality where the land is located, attesting to the truth of the facts contained in the application to the effect that the applicant thereof has, either by himself or through his predecessor-in-interest, actually resided on and continuously possessed and occupied, under a bona fide claim of acquisition of ownership, the land applied for at least ten (10) years and has complied with the requirements prescribed in Section 1 hereof.

    Section 4. Special Patents. – Notwithstanding any provision of law to the contrary and subject to private rights, if any, public land actually occupied and used for public schools, municipal halls, public plazas or parks and other government institutions for public use or purpose may be issued special patents under the name of the national agency or LGU concerned: Provided, That all lands titled under this section shall not be disposed of unless sanctioned by Congress if owned by the national agency or sanctioned by the sanggunian concerned through an approved ordinance if owned by the LGU.

    Section 5. Removal of Restrictions. – The restrictions regarding encumbrances, conveyances, transfers or dispositions imposed in Sections 118, 119,121, 122 and 123 of Chapter XII, Title VI of Commonwealth Act No. 141 as amended, shall not apply to patents issued under this Act.

    Section 6. Period for Application. – All applications shall be filed immediately after the effectivity of this Act before the Community Environment and Natural Resources Office (CENRO) of the DENR. The CENRO is mandated to process the application within one hundred and twenty (120) days to include compliance with the required notices and other legal requirements, and forward this recommendation to the Provincial Environment and Natural Resources Office (PENRO), who shall have five (5) days to approve or disapprove the patent. In case of approval, patent shall be issued; in case of conflicting claims among different claimants, the parties may seek the proper judicial remedies.1avvphi1

    Section 7. Implementing Rules and Regulations. – The Director of the Land Management Bureau of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) shall promulgate rules and regulations to carry out the provisions of this Act, and shall see to it that such are gender responsive.

    Section 8. Repealing Clause. – All laws, decrees, executive order, executive issuance’s or letters of instruction, rules and regulations or any part thereof inconsistent with or contrary to the provisions of this Act are hereby deemed repealed, amended or modified accordingly.

    Section 9. Separability Clause. – If, for any reason or reasons, any part or parts of this Act shall be declared unconstitutional or invalid by any competent court, other parts of this Act shall be thereby shall continue to be in full force and effect.

    Section 10. Effectivity Clause. – This Act shall take effect fifteen days (15) after its publication in two (2) national newspapers of general education.

    President of the Senate (Sgd.) PROSPERO C. NOGRALES
    Speaker of the House of Representatives

    This Act which is a consolidation of House Bill No. 5618 and Senate Bill No. 3429 was finally passed by the House of Representatives and Senate on December 18, 2009.

    Secretary of Senate (Sgd.) MARILYN B. BARUA-YAP
    Secretary General
    House of Representatives

    Approved: March 9, 2010
    President of the Philippines

  2. Per inquiry from CENRO (Leyte), here under are requirements for FREE PATENT application for RESIDENTIAL LANDS;

    1. Documents of ownership such as Deed of Sale, Donation, Extrajudicial Partition, etc.;

    2. Latest Tax Declaration specifically indicated and classified as Residential Land;

    3. Certified Technical Description of the LOT from Land Management Service-DENR (LMS-DENR);

    4. Approved survey plan from LMS-DENR;

    5. Certification from Land Registration Authority (LRA) as to the status of the property if there is a pending or on-going land registration proceedings;

    6. Certification from Land Management Bureau as to the status of the property;

    7. Certification from the Local Planning and Development Office (MPDC) that the property is classified already as residential area per Zoning Ordinance;

    8. Affidavit of two (2) disinterested party who are residing in the barangay, attesting the truth that the applicant is actually resided on and continuously possessed and occupied for at least 10 years;

    9. Community Tax Certificate of the applicant;

    10. Payment of Application Fee and Cadastral Cost.

    NOTE: FREE Patent is applied only for those un-titled residential land and has no decree issued yet by the Court/Cadastral Court.

  3. Edsel Fagela says:


    Good am.

    I would like to ask if the property was re-classified by Sangguniang Bayan from Agricultural to commercial/residential and the same was duly ratified by the Sangguniang Panlalawigan, is it necessary that the property subject of re-classification be applied for conversion with the office of the Department of Agrarian (DAR)?

    Thank you very much and God Bless!!!!


    • Dear Edsel,
      Thank you for visiting our website..Yes, an agricultural land that should be converted to non-agricultural usage (e.g. residential, commercial, or industrial) shall file a “land conversion” at the DAR Office even though it is already reclassified by the Sanguniang Bayan concern. This is a mandatory requirement under NIPAS Law (National Integrated Protected Area System -RA 7586). Its primary purpose is “the classification and administration of all designated protected areas to maintain essential ecological processes and life-support systems, to preserve genetic diversity, to ensure sustainable use of resources found therein, and to maintain their natural conditions to the greatest extent possible”. If your property is within the ambiance of this law, definitely the DAR will not issue the land conversion of your property. Therefore, the reclassification issued by the local SB (in form of an ordinance) has no legal effect, the national law will govern.


  4. Good Day!

    follow up q lang po sana yong assistance na hinihingi ko po regarding kay Mr. Goichiro Okano, sa whereabouts niya. thank you

  5. Hello po, Sir, appreciate your time and efforts in reading and responding all those queries above. I have also my concerns po, hope you won’t mind, ask sana ng advise tungkol sa lupa na nabenta at na declare sa DOS signed with all the concerned owner, total area is 3Hecs more or less and naka lagay sa DOS and then nong pinaresurvey namin, nagiging 4Hecs pala ang actual sukat….ano ngayon ang dapat gawin ng nakabili. Inisip kasi niya baka magpadagdag ulit ng bayad yong nagbenta or considered pa den na, sa original may-ari yong 1hec na excess. Anong dapat gawin den po sa napirmahan at na silyuhan na DOS? Thank you po. Appreciate your time and hoping for your reply advise po.

    May other query pa po ako sir, pag ang mga nabili kong lots ay lahat rights lang po na nakalagay ang name ko na ako ang nakabili…anong dapat gawin ko po sa ganong klase nang bilihan… pede naba ako magbayad ng tax non o ende pa. then ano po ang dapat ko I process para atleast maka start na po ako magpay ng tax non. Sa ngayon rights document lang hawak ko wala den akong ibang ginawa pa sa lupa, basta hinaya-an ko lang.

    May isa pa akong nabili na lot 1000sq, bali sinalo ko lang sa nakabili sa lote na DOS lang ang hawak niya from the owner, at mana lang ng mga magulang nila yong nagbenta, naka mother title pa po, wala pa title na sa kanila na talaga yong portion. Ang hawak ko lang sa ngayon is DOS at medyo matagal tagal napo ito. wala den akong ginawa na action, at pati sa lupa naka tiwang-wang lang. Den lately napansin ko, sabi nong pinagbilhan na may-ari, pina process daw nila into smaller portion, pinabiyak-biyak nadaw niya yong parte niya nakasama yong nabayaran kuna. Nag-isip ako baka ibenta niya uli sa iba nabayaran kuna? wala paman ako ibang hawak na document at ende ko den alam kung sa-an na banda yong lot na yon. Bihira ko kasing bisitahin. Madami panaman ngayong nakatayo na bahay don at katabi ng parte niya may subdivision na? Please badly need your help/advise po.

    Lastly, pag mga DOS lang po ang hawak na dokomento ano po ba dapat ang unang gawin? pede naba ipa register into my name agad-agad? para kahit papano makastart na po ako magpay ng tax. atleast may proof ako na ako na ang nagbabayad kahit DOS lang dokumento na hawak ko?

    Sensiya na po, OFW kasi ako, kaya walang ma-utusang mag inquire diyan sa atin.

    Thank you very much po,

    • Dear Nano,
      Thank you sa pagbisita mo sa aming website. Base sa salaysay mo ang nabili mo lang ay 3 hectares but during the conduct of survey ito ay umabot ng 4 hectares. If you will read sa DOS I think ang nakalagay dyan ay 3 hectares “more or less”, if that the case puede kang mag insist na ganun na ang total area mong nabili (4 hecs.) at dahil ang ma-prevail naman nito ay ang survey plan sa lote. Pero, kung mag insist naman ang nagbenta sa iyo na 3 hecs. lang ang ibinenta nya sa sayo, wala kang magagawa, you have to return/give them ang sobrang 1 hectare. Pero meron din malaking possibility na ibenta na rin ito sa iyo ang sobrang 1 hectare, if that the case gagawa ulit kayo ng another DOS or puede rin palitan ang DOS na mag 3 hectares para maging 4 hectares.

      Sa pangalawang query mo, dapat mag start ka na sa pag process ng mga documents para matransfer na sa iyong pangalan ang property na yan. Ang una mong gawin ay pumunta sa local assessor at treasurer nyo para mag bayad ng buwis (amelyar), mag request ka ng tax clearance certificate, mga certified true copies sa mga tax declarations. Then you will proceed to BIR para mag bayad ng capital gain tax, documentary stamp tax at certification fees. Then kung mabigyan ka na ng BIR ng certification authorizing registration (CAR), puede ka ng magderetso sa ROD para sa registration sa DOS mo. Kung ok ka na sa ROD, babalik ka pa sa local assessor nyo para naman ito ay ma-transfer ang tax declaration sa pangalan mo. At kung sa iyo na ang pangalan sa tax declaration, meron ka ng annual obligation para mag bayad ng real property tax o buwis.

      At sa last query mo, you have to act at once sa nabili mong lupa. Dapat e-process mo na rin, dahil kung DOS lang medyo hindi ka pa ito secure sa ownership sa nabili mong lupa. Dapat ang mga documents especially DOS ay registrado sa Registry of Deeds (ROD) or kung may title man dapat nasa pangalan mo na. There a lot of cases na, na marami dyan ang “double sale” it means na ibininta ito sa isang tao at ito naman ay ibinenta again sa ibang person. Kung later on meron na itong dispute o kaso sa court, ang decision o ang pinaninindigan ng korte ay iyong naka pag-registered sa ROD. So, better you should act now.


  6. good day po. plano po namin bumili ng lote under cloa title which was awarded on 1991, pero ang original na may ari ng nasabing cloa title ay namatay na at bago pa man siya mamatay ay naibenta na nya ito sa 2nd party supported by DOS on 2010, ang tanong ko po ay kung puede naming bilhin ang nasabing cloa title mula sa 2nd party at kung anong documents ang dapat naming iprepare? salamt po

    • Dear Alex,
      Thank you for visiting our website. Yes, puede mong bilhin sa second party ang property na yan. All you have to do is prior to preparation of Deed of Sale, you should get the DOS sa second party and the original CLOA title. Also ask all the documents related to that property e.g. tax declaration, OR payment of taxes, survey plan, at iba pa. Ang mabigat lang dito ay dalawang Capital Gain Tax, Documentary Stamp Tax ang babayaran mo sa BIR, at ang Estate Tax dahil patay na yung original owner. At kung mag papatransfer ka na sa nabili mong lupa, ang mga kailangan mo mga documents ay ang CAR (Certificate Authorizing Registration) from BIR, Original CLOA Title, Tax Declaration, Tax Clearance Certificate (from local treasury office), Transfer fee, Certificate of No Improvement (from Assessor Office).


  7. daryl owens says:

    i am thinking of buying some agricultral land from a bank which has been foreclosed, the bank says it has a clean title and available, however when i visited the land i found it was occupied by squatters and was told that some are applying for cloa,
    not sure what is involved with a cloa but if i buy the land will they be entitled to live in the centre of the property asi would like to clear the rubbish and trash thrown about to use it as a small farm, the bank say it is not in a carp area and know nothing about any cloa being claimed,
    is it safe to buy?
    hoping for a swift reply

    • Dear Daryl,
      Thank you for visiting our website. Buying a real property especially land needs prior verification of its documents and the actual condition of the land. It is very good that you have conducted an ocular inspection to verify the actual condition and usage of the land. Land that has informal settlers are very hard in ejecting them once the property owner decided to use already the property. It takes time and effort to persuade them to transfer to another area. It is safe to buy this property? Well if in terms of documentation it is safe because the seller is bank. It is always clean if the bank is the seller. However,if you decided to buy the property, the burden of all the problems shall be yours. So, its better first to negotiate with the bank, and let the bank do the processing of transferring or relocation of the informal settlers before you buy the property.
      With regards to the claim that the property is not covered by the CARP (Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Program); you can verify it at the DAR Office. Request for a certification that the property is not under CARP Area. Ask also if there are applications for the beneficiary for the issuance of CLOA title of the concern property. And lastly, “CLOA or Certificate of Land Ownership Award” is a form of land title being issued by the DAR under the CARP Law. The beneficiary of this program are those landless tenants and farmers.


  8. Ching Reuyan says:

    hi, gusto ko lang mo mag tanong. if hindi pa narelease ang CLOA then gusto may bumili ano ba ang dapat gawin? or any legal docs? then how long ma release ang cloa ? from time na na survey ng bureau of land?

    • Dear Ching,
      Thank you sa pagbisita mo sa aming website. Kung wala pa ang CLOA title, you can use the Tax Declaration sa pag prepare ng Deed of Sale. Ito ay legal din na document para sa pag transfer of ownership. Gaano katagal bago ma release ang CLOA title? Depende yan sa DAR at mga documentations na gagawin, sometimes it will take a year. By the way wala na po ang Bureau of Lands, ito ay pinalitan na ng pangalan na “Land Management Service” (LMS) under po ito ng DENR. Ang LMS ay hindi sila ang nag susurvey, ang opisina nila (LMS) ang nag-a-approved ng mga survey plan na ginagawa ng surveyor ng DAR.


  9. Good day Po,

    May query po ako uli, I have a situation now backhome. Im trying to purchase an hectar property, no title still only DOS. The original owner is a wife, and now her brother in law, is acquiring the land, as it says that it is their brother land too. But the first owner can testify that the wife is the one who bought it from her. Now, this brother in law is starting to make fence of the land. My part now, is I am holding only a DOS that says I already purchased the property, but still I did not apply to assessor or anything to transfer the record into my name. What should be my action into this kind of situation, and to the brother in law, what legal action to take. The husband recently passed away but he did signed the original DOS along with their kids. Thank you…hope you can spend time and give me a feasible pointers to my query. Thanks a lot.

    • Dear Junjun,
      Thanks again for visiting our website. The brother has no legal rights to claim of the property of his deceased brother.It is not a property of their parents. It is clear that it is a conjugal property of both spouses which has bought from the first owner. Since you have already bought the property, therefore you are now the legal owner and you have the rights take possession of that property.

      The first thing you should do is to call the attention of the brother who do the fencing of the property through the help of the Barangay who has the jurisdiction of that land. In that way, all minutes of the discussion should be recorded at the Barangay. It is important also that the settlement of disputes be resolve at the Barangay level, and just in case, it will not be settled you can now elevate your legal rights to the proper court. And lastly, you should do immediately the processing for the transfer of the property.

      Good luck.


  10. xe cu says:

    Hi. Good day po. ask ko lang kasi naka bili kami ng almost 2 hectares na lupa mula sa under CLOA tapos yung may ari noon ay nakapag benta ng 150 sq. meters sa iba at nakapag pa deed of sale sila. nung kami na po ang bumibili sabi sa DAR hindi daw pwede parcel lang bibilihin dapat buo kaya binili namin ng buo. ngayon po ay nakapa title na ako mawawalan po ba ng bisa yung DOS nung unang pinagbilihan nung dating may ari ? wala ho siyang Tax declaration at iba pa tanging DOS lang meron siya. May expiration po ba ang Deed of sale?
    Looking forward for your response. Your reply is highly appreciated. Thank you.

    • Dear Xe Cu,
      Salamat sa pag bisita mo sa aming website. Sa ngayon ikaw na po ang may ari ng whole parcel ng lupa dahil buo ang pagkabili mo. Ang may problema ngayon ay yong nakabili ng 150 sq.m., although wala naman expiration sa Deed of Sale na dokumento, pero malaking problema nya kung magpapa transfer sya ng kanyang nabiling lupa. Sa pag tingin ko sya (ang taong nakabili ng 150sq.m.) ay kakausapin ka nya na e-separate ang 150 sq.m. dahil nabili nya yun. Medyo may mga documentation na gagawin nya in order na makuha nya ang kanyang nabili. I think you have to give way naman sa kanya dahil nabili naman nya yun.


      • xe cu says:

        salamat po sa pag sagot. tanong ko lang po ulit sino po ba saamin ang may mas karapatan sa lupa nabili ko po ng buo ang lupa kasama yung lupang nabili niya pero una naman siyang nakabili ng portion lamang ng kabuuan ngunit hindi po ba bawal i chop chop ang CLOA land? anong republic act po ba kaya ang pwede kong basahin tungkol sa bentahan pagsasalin sa pangalan pag tungkol sa cloa land?

      • Dear Xe,
        Actually both of you ay may karapatan sa lupang ya. Pero yung unang nakabili ay 150 sq.m. lang ang kanyang karapatan. Ang sa iyo naman, although buo ang nabili mo you have to consider also sa unang nakabili or else mag kakaroon later ito ng problema sa iyo. Ang lupang under CLOA ay puede naman itong ma-subdivide, hindi naman po ito saklaw sa prohibition. Para ma kuha mo ang buong pagkakaalam sa CLOA land, you can read RA-6657 CARP Law.


  11. Hi sir!

    I bought a property under CLOA and it is still less than 10 years old. can I develop this property (subdivide and sell it`) ? can I take developmental loan from Pag big or sandbank?

    • Dear Mark,
      Thank you for visiting our website. Right now, since you are the legal owner of that property, you have the full rights of that property. You can develop that, but for purposes in getting loan to lending institution, you need first to have that property to convert (land conversion) into non-agricultural usage at the DAR office. In addition, you also have to petition for re-classification of that property to your local sangguniang bayan or lungsod in order that the tax declaration be revise into non-agricultural classification.

      Burauen Assessor

  12. chris bruno says:

    good day! ask lang po..may binibentang lupa saken, unregistered based sa assessor’s office pero binubuwisan nung nagbebenta saken..nag ask ako sa DENR kung kanino nakapangalan yung lote, iba yung name sa record nila sa nagbebenta saken, sabi ng personnel sa DENR icheck ko daw history ng lote pano napunta sa nagbebenta saken..can you please guide me if safe ba bilhin yung ganitong lote? possible ba to matitulohan later on under my name? Thank you in advance.

    • Dear Chris,
      Thank you for visiting our website. First thing you should do ay pumunta sa Assessor Office and then request for history or tracer of that property. Dalhin mo lang ang tax declaration. Ask also kung ano Lot number at classification ng loteng yan; kung A & D (Alienable and Disposable) na yan puede po itong ma-titlelan. Pero kung “public land” pa yan hindi po ito puedeng ma-titlelan. Kung A & D na yan, check also sa ROD kung meron na itong title. Before you decide to buy that property, mag ocular inspection ka muna sa loteng yan. Verify kung meron may itong tenant (if agricultural) or di kaya may dispute ba ito o wala ba itong ibang claimant.


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